Tooth fracture is considered as a dental emergency if it involves the pulp. It causes severe pain to the patient. It is also known as cracked tooth syndrome. The fracture can be involving only the crown portion of the tooth or could extend to the roots.
Classification of Tooth Fracture
Tooth fracture is classified as crown fracture and root fracture.
Crown fracture is further classified as:
- Ellis class 1- it involves only the enamel portion of the tooth.
- Ellis class 2- it involves both enamel and dentin.
- Ellis class 3- it involves pulp .
Causes of Tooth Fracture
- Accidental injury.
- Trauma due to occlusion.
- Dental decay.
- Biting something hard.
- Traumatic bite.
Symptoms of Tooth Fracture
- Sharp and shooting pain.
- The pain arises on releasing the biting pressure.
- Severe pain and sensitivity to cold stimulus is evident.
- The fractured segments can be visible sometimes.
- If pulpal involvement is there then bleeding is also seen.
- The tooth can become mobile.
- Pain on chewing food.
Diagnosis of Tooth Fracture
The tooth fracture is diagnosed by its nature of pain.The fracture line can be seen through radiographs. It is seen as the radiolucency.Another diagnostic instrument used is tooth sloth.
Treatment of Tooth Fracture
- The fracture involving enamel or dentin are treated by filling and building the tooth structure.
- The fracture involving the pulp is has to be treated by root canal treatment.
- The mobile structures of tooth are stabilized.
- Prognosis of root fractures are not so good and tooth has to be extracted if can’t be saved.