Key Reasons For Tooth Decay And The Factors Affecting It

If you are a victim of tooth decay, you have already experienced the pain and discomfort but have you ever wondered why tooth decay happens? Are you aware that sugar and chocolates are not the only reasons for tooth decay?

In this article, we will answer some common questions about tooth decay. Before we get into the reasons for tooth decay, let’s first understand what is tooth decay.

Tooth decay is an active decomposition of the enamel layer of the tooth that happens through the action of bacteria.

What are the key reasons for tooth decay

For all those who assume and blame sweets and chocolates for cavities, here is a fact…

Food is just not the only reason for tooth decay. There are several other factors involved in the formation of a cavity like –

  • Presence of bacteria,
  • Duration of time,
  • Shape or morphology of the tooth

If you are still wondering how these factors work together to cause cavities, let me explain the tetrad of factors causing tooth decay in detail.

Tetrad of Factors for Tooth Decay & Cavities

Bacteria rely on food deposited on the tooth to survive and propagate.

Will bacteria suddenly attack the food? No. It requires time too. So when the food is deposited and left undisturbed for a long time, then the bacteria act upon it to produce an acidic substance (lactic acid) that in turn affects the tooth causing a cavity.

facotrs of tooth decay

You must be wondering why we are considering tooth as a factor for tooth decay and cavity. Yes, unfortunately, sometimes the formation of the tooth itself is defective, which increases accumulation of food and further the cycle repeats.

tooth decay

Last, food as a factor of tooth decay and cavities. With the increasing Westernisation of food consumption patterns, we consume more carbohydrates today, which are by nature sticky and fermentable by bacteria and further causing the cycle to repeat again.

So this is how all the 4 factors together act and cause cavities.

We hope this gives you a better understanding of tooth decay & cavities and helps you take better care of your tooth. If you have any other questions about tooth decay, feel free to contact us.

Cost of Teeth Whitening in India Compared to USA and Other Countries

Cost of teeth whitening in India is much less when compared to teeth whitening cost in USA, Dubai and other countries. In fact the generic cost of dental treatment overall is much lesser in India, though the quality of treatment available is comparable to International standards.

India has some of the best qualified in each and every field, this fact has been realized world over. In regards to dental treatment, India has some of the most competent doctors and world class facilities.One of the major reasons that have put India as a global leader in dental tourism is the low cost of dental treatment in India.The quality of treatment provided by hospitals and private dental clinics is comparable, if not better than most of the western countries.However, as a developing country, the cost of treatment and healthcare in general is much lesser in India compared to USA and other countries. Low cost of dental treatment in India has resulted in increasing number of foreign patients visit India for their various dental treatment and other health problems.

Some of the advantages of dental treatment in India includes –

  • Internationally accredited medical facilities using the latest technologies,
  • Fluent English speaking staff,
  • No wait list,
  • Significant cost savings compared to domestic private healthcare,

Dental treatment costs in India are lower by at least 60-80% when compared to similar procedures in North America and the USA and can easily be combined with a holiday / business trip.

India has got worldwide recognition and has created its own identity in the field of dental treatment and surgery.

As a leading dental clinic in India we see hundreds of patients from USA, UK, Australia and several other countries every year. The most common treatment needs include cosmetic dentistry procedures like teeth whitening, veneers, invisalign and others, dental Implants ( Dr.Venkat is a globally recognized authority in Dental Implant procedures), orthodontics and oral maxillofacial surgeries. Treatment in India provides great cost saving benefits besides world-class facilities.

Different Types & Cost of Teeth Whitening in India

Teeth Whitening INR 4000 – INR 18000
Laser Teeth Whitening INR 12000 – INR 15000
Chemical Teeth Whitening INR 5000 – INR 15000
Home Whitening Kits INR 4000 – INR 7000
Whitening Top-Up Treatment INR 5000 – INR 7000
Zoom Teeth Whitening INR 12000 – INR 15000

Cost of Teeth Whitening in USA

Laser Teeth Whiteing USD 400 – USD 600
In-Office Teeth Whitening Approx USD 650
Dentist Take Home Trays Approx USD 400
At-Home Teeth Whitening Products Approx USD 100

Cost of Teeth Whitening in Dubai and other Gulf Countries

Laser Teeth Whiteing USD 490 – USD 750
In-Office Teeth Whitening USD 390 – USD 920
At-Home Teeth Whitening Products USD 175 – USD 450 ( per arch)

As you can see from the above illustration that the cost of teeth whitening in India is much lesser compared to USA and also various other countries that we have surveyed. In case you have a specific treatment need feel free to contact us and our International patients team can even help you to get an estimate for your treatment requirements, so you can make an informed decision.

Early Childhood Caries & Treatment Under General Anaesthecia

Though many parents are knowledgeable that children must get rid of the baby feeding bottle at the age of one year and that the baby by no means should go to sleep while clutching the bottle, many just can’t discontinue the habit, or else, many merely surrender with the intention that the family can get a little much-needed sleep. The fault hits hard, however, while these parents get their toddlers to the pediatric dentist, they realize that the child requires up to 10 to 20 fillings, crowns and/or tooth extractions to undo the harm caused by ECC – Early Childhood Caries.

ECC / Early Childhood Caries – Does it really matter!

Yes, it does!
A glance at the occurrence and seriousness of this ECC, demonstrates why it is so significant for the dentists to lay emphasis on prevention and as necessary, recommend different treatment options for these kids.

Evidence of Early Childhood Caries

  • 38% of children aged I to 2 years develop ECC
  • 56% of children aged 2 to 3 years develop ECC.

In certain economically underprivileged families, almost 80% of infants and preschoolers were found to have Early Childhood Caries..

What is Early Childhood Caries

Early childhood caries (ECC) is also commonly known as Baby bottle caries, Baby bottle tooth decay, Bottle rot.ECC is a severe decay in the teeth of infants or young children and is characterized by extensive, rapidly progressive, deep decay of the upper front milk teeth and often the back teeth.

Wake up before it is too late!

ECC setting in





If neglected, ECC could be a serious problem.

results of Early childhood caries

If delayed, your child’s decayed teeth may very soon become necrotic and can cause alveolar abscesses, which often leads to diffused swelling of the surrounding soft tissues.
These abscesses are quite painful and can also harm the underlying, developing permanent tooth buds. Worse yet, this condition can cause disfigurement and hamper the child’s ability to eat.

Consequences of ECC


Treatment for Early Childhood Caries?

Pediatric dentists find themselves walking a fine line while helping children facing this problem. Most young children can be treated adequately using behavioral techniques. On the other hand,
some kids cannot receive treatment via these conventional methods. Infants and children who have not yet attained the emotional maturity, neither have the ability to understand the need for the treatment nor the effective and appropriate skills to get through invasive and potentially uncomfortable and expressively frightening dental procedures. For many of these children, treatment under General Anaesthesia (GA) in a hospital setting represents the best possible or the single venue to deliver the required oral health care.

Literature support:
• Dental management using General Anesthesia is a one-step rehabilitation treatment for young children with severe dental problems.
• What is GA? – GA is a controlled state of unconsciousness.
• It is almost three decades that dental rehabilitation under GA had been delivered to young children.
• In many cases, GA is the only practically possible and time-saving mode of treatment.
In a single session under GA, different procedures including GIC or composite restorations. Pulp therapies, stainless steel crowns (SSCs), extractions, preventive procedures like pit and fissure sealants and fluoride varnish applications are offered.
• The quality of dental care is much better with general anaesthesia for the reason that the dentist can perform treatment for the child without having to constantly adjust for the child’s movement and without having to prepare and encourage the child.


What are the advantages of Comprehensive Dental Rehabilitation Under GA?

  • As already stated, under GA, all the necessary treatments are delivered in a single session in a hospital setting, thus providing efficient services in a safe and secure mode. Furthermore. GA is one modality that makes sure that the child received effective pain control.
  • The added advantage is GA does not need the child’s cooperation as one prerequisite for treatment.
  • Dental GA is more convenient and time-saving than treatment in office setting.
  • It has also been reported that dental treatments performed under GA have superior quality and durability than conventional treatments (BMC Oral Health 2014).

How much time does it take for the treatment of Caries?

The time required for dental rehabilitation under GA is considerably fluctuating with an average of 1 to 4 hours being the usual treatment time elapsed on a day-care basis. The total time required for the treatment is influenced by a number of teeth to be restored and the type of dental procedure.

Improved scheduling: We are glad to add to your information that you need not be dependent on the availability of operating suites at hospitals as we are now able to schedule and plan our procedures to deliver treatment to patients in a timely approach. On top, the scheduling flexibility makes it possible for the working parents and dentists in our practice to plan events to meet their requests as well.

Changing Parental Attitudes towards General Anaesthesia

Most of the parents convey “panic,” “fear,” and “concern, with some level of nervousness towards GA. However, attitude of parents concerning GA has altered over time in the favor of it. Currently, there is a swing towards growing acceptability of General Anaesthesia in parental opinion. After treatment under GA is complete, parents reported a reduction in the amount of dental pain or no pain, improvement in the sleeping pattern, eating habits and increased acceptance of parental tooth brushing. Dental rehabilitation under GA resulted in the instant improvement of the oral health, physical, emotional and social quality of life of the treated children. It also has a positive and encouraging impact on the family providing an enhanced opportunity for parents and child education on positive oral health behaviours, which can lead to positive behavioural changes and improved oral health for lifetime.

We are happy that most parents today, recognize dental GA as a treatment modality that optimistically affects the quality of life of their young children.


Causes of Toothache and Pain Relief

While tooth decay is often the primary cause of a toothache, it’s important for you to have a complete oral examination to determine the cause. Other causes of a toothache can include the following:

  • Infection
  • Gum disease
  • Grinding teeth (bruxism)
  • Tooth trauma
  • An abnormal bite
  • Wisdom tooth pain
  • Tooth eruption (in babies and school-age children)

TMJ/TMD (Temporo mandibular Joint Disorder), sinus or ear infections, and tension in the facial muscles can cause discomfort that resembles a toothache, but often these health problems are accompanied by a headache.

Pain around the teeth and the jaws can be symptoms of heart disease such as angina. If your dentist suspects a medical illness could be the cause of your toothache, he or she may refer you to a physician.

If you have a toothache, you may have a cavity or advanced gum disease.

The first sign of decay may be the pain you feel when you eat something sweet, very cold or very hot. ( If the pulp – the inside of the tooth that has tissue and nerves – has become irritated, this can cause pain in your tooth.)

What Symptoms Accompany a Toothache

Because the symptoms of a toothache may resemble other medical conditions or dental problems, it can be difficult to diagnose the cause without a complete evaluation by your dentist. If you notice pus near the source of the pain, your tooth may have become abscessed, causing the surrounding bone to become infected. Or the pus could indicate gum disease, which is usually characterized by inflammation of the soft tissue, bleeding gums and abnormal loss of bone surrounding the teeth.

How do I get pain relief from tooth pain if I cannot see my dentist right away?

Anyone with a toothache should see a dentist at once for diagnosis and treatment. If left untreated, a toothache and the condition that is causing it can worsen. However, if you are unable to schedule an emergency appointment, the following self-care treatment can temporarily alleviate pain and inflammation from a toothache:

  • Rinse with warm salt water
  • Gently floss teeth to dislodge any food particles trapped between teeth.
  • Take an over-the-counter pain reliever such as ibuprofen (Advil) or acetaminophen (Tylenol) to relieve pain.
  • Never put aspirin or any other painkiller against the gums near the aching tooth, as it may burn the gum tissue.
  • Apply an over-the-counter antiseptic containing benzocaine directly to the irritated tooth and gum to temporarily relieve pain. Direct application of oil of cloves (eugenol) may also help to numb the gums. The oil may be rubbed directly on the sore area, or soak a small piece of cotton and apply it to the sore tooth.
  • If there has been some trauma to the tooth, a cold compress may be applied on the outside cheek to relieve pain or swelling.

How Can My Dentist Help with Toothache

  • Your dentist will conduct a complete oral examination to determine the location and cause of the toothache, looking for signs of swelling, redness and obvious tooth damage. He or she may also take x-rays to look for evidence of tooth decay between teeth, a cracked or impacted tooth or a disorder of the underlying bone.
  • Your dentist also may prescribe pain medication or antibiotics to speed the healing of your toothache. If by the time you see your dentist your tooth has become infected, then treatment could require removal of the tooth or a root canal procedure, which involves removing the damaged nerve tissue from the middle of a tooth.
  • Is there a way to Prevent a Toothache

    The key to preventing toothaches is establishing a regular oral hygiene routine and sticking to it. For example, failure to brush and floss regularly after meals can significantly increase your risk of developing cavities, which can cause toothaches.
    Here are a few tips to help reduce your risk for developing a toothache:

    • Brush at least twice a day, preferably after meals and snacks.
    • Floss at least once a day to prevent gum disease.
    • Visit your dentist regularly for oral examinations and a professional cleaning.

Cost of Dentures in India

Dentures which act as false teeth are removable replacements for missing teeth typically made out of an acrylic resin which at times incorporate porcelain or metal for additional structural support. Consequences of missing teeth include significant nutritional changes, obesity, diabetes, coronary artery disease and some forms of cancer.

According to American Dental Association and the dental council of India the Prosthodontists are the Dental Specialists who replace missing tooth or teeth with either removable dentures or fixed dentures.

Some Statistics About Dentures in India and USA

About 15 percent of the edentulous population has dentures made each year. About 23 million are completely edentulous and about 12 million are edentulous in one arch. 90 per cent of those who are edentulous have dentures. About 35 million Americans and more are having all teeth missing, and 178 million people in the U.S. are missing at least one tooth. These numbers are expected to increase in the new 20 years according to American Dental Association. Loss of teeth results from decay and gums diseases, oras a result of injury, cancer and simply wear..

There are two main types of dentures. Both Complete Dentures and Partial Dentures are finely crafted, custom-fitted. If you properly maintain your dentures they will appear natural and provide a perfect smile. Additionally, dentures help strengthen muscles controlling your expressions that require the support of your teeth, rid you of pronunciation problems caused by missing teeth and aid with chewing.

We provide dentures that are of high quality and at the same time we are sure that we will be able to provide you with dentures that are a perfect fit. The Dental Specialists team provide patients with both Partial and Complete Dentures. Dentures definitely provide a great smile with a very natural appearance. They’re made of very durable materials and last very long when properly taken care of. Typically dentures last from five to ten years.

What is the process for placing a denture

It is somewhat common to require for some teeth to be extracted, and surgery in some cases is necessary to improve the bony ridges that stabilize your dentures. The procedure begins with a wax bite impression of your mouth that will give your dentist exacting measurements. A try-on appointment will fine tunes colour, shape, and custom-fit. After your final dentures are fabricated, they will be placed and will give you the post treatment instructions.This procedure should be thoroughly discussed with your dentist as there are several personal and medical factors to take into consideration. You may instead be a candidate for dental bridges and dental implants as optional procedures.

Cost of Dentures in India

Denture prices vary widely depending on the materials used. One can expect to pay at least a couple thousand dollars for a set of dentures. Complete dentures can cost you from $300 to $8,000 in India.This difference in cost is due to the fabrication time, cost of dental materials, and the experience of the dentist. Complete dentures may take 15 hours and five to six appointments by an experienced dentist to complete the whole process. The cost range does not include fees associated with possible oral surgery or tooth extraction. Insurance companies may offer a 15 per cent reimbursement or up to a 50 percent absorption of the total procedure costs.

Conventional Complete Denture (Upper or Lower) $1275 – $2750,
At Dental Specialists INR 10,000 – INR 25,000
Immediate Denture (Complete Upper or Lower) $1475 – $3150
Removable partial denture cast metal frame work Upper or Lower $950 – $1900
Implant Fixture : 25,000 INR (USD 300-400)
Abutment : 5000 INR (USD 100)
Metal Crowns : INR 2000-INR 3000
Metal Ceramic : INR 3500-INR 4500
Metal Laser Sintered : INR 5000-INR 7000
Zirconia : INR 6000-INR 18,000

The cost of denture depends on several factors including :

  • Additional procedure such as extractions of remaining teeth or any kind of oral surgery such as to refine bony ridges.
  • The location of the dentist.
  • Country in which you are living in.
  • The Dental insurance you have.
  • Dental materials selected by the patient and the dentist. For instance, highly cross-linked polymer denture teeth are more expensive than conventional plastic teeth but they are more aesthetic and do not wear out easily.
  • The type of warranty offered. Some warranties may last for one to two years, while others may last up to 10 years.

Common Concerns About Dentures

There’s no doubt that dentures take a little getting used to. There is maintenance involved, and initial speech issues to overcome (these are temporary and last only a couple of days). Mouth irritation or sores may occur, but are usually caused by poor dental hygiene, and by not removing your dentures when needed. It is common that your mouth will change over the life of your dentures, so even though they last long, they may need to be replaced to achieve a better fit before they are worn out. With a denture a person typically chews at only 15-23% efficiency compared to a person chewing with their natural teeth. In the case of a full upper denture, the upper palate is covered which can reduce taste of foods you’re chewing.

Types of Dental Braces in India

Dental Braces are the devices which are used in orthodontic treatment. A perfect set of teeth is every ones dream. Every one desires a beautiful smile. Perfectly arranged teeth functions best and last longer in mouth. They are used to straighten or align the teeth and help to position them. They are also used for treating cross bites, deep bites, open bites, rotation, etc.

Dental technology has brought us to an advance and exciting stage when it comes to dental braces. There are many types of dental braces from traditional metal braces to ceramic braces, from tooth-colored braces to clear braces. It is no longer regarded as fear for teenagers. The treatment with the braces is the major step that provides permanent and perfectly aligned teeth.

The end results can simply be stunning and the patient can experience the joy of positive progress by checking in the mirror at home. The results are beautiful because anything well organized looks good and beautiful.

Metal Braces ( Traditional Dental Braces)

metal dental bracesThese are the traditional braces which consist of metal brackets and wires that most of the people picture when they hear the word braces. These are dental braces which are made up of high grade stainless steel which straighten your teeth using metal brackets and arch wires. These are the least expensive braces that are used in orthodontic treatment.

Once installed the patient has to be more careful with what they eat. One should avoid eating gums or caramel that sticks to the brackets. The patient should avoid eating hard food as it may result in dislodgment of bracket.

Ceramic Braces

dental ceramic bracesCeramic Braces are common alternative to the metal braces. Ceramic Braces are made up of tooth colored material which is usually less noticeable than the usual metal braces.

They have tooth colored brackets that blend with the teeth and are of same size and shape as metal brackets. They are more expensive when compared to the traditional metal braces. Ceramic Braces stain easily if one does not maintain proper oral hygiene.

Lingual Braces

lingual bracesLingual braces are same as metal braces, these are custom made and are bonded behind the teeth (lingual side) to remain out of site. A skillful orthodontist is required to install them. They are difficult to clean and are even more expensive than the ceramic braces. They can be uncomfortable initially but eventually patient gets used to it. The adjustments take longer time than traditional braces.


InvisalignApart from all the above, the other type of braces used are INVISALIGN which are nothing but a series of 15-30 custom made mouth guard like removable clear plastic aligners. The aligners are replaced every 2-3 weeks.

They are most comfortable to the patient. These don’t work for serious dental problems. These are very costly when compared to all others. This treatment may take usually longer time when compared to others. Find more about Invisalign or Invisible braces in India.

Cost of Dental Braces in India

Two kinds of costs should be considered in treatment with braces.
Cost of treatment varies from city to city. There is no standardization of charges for treatment. Ceramic braces are more expensive but not useful for serious dental problems and are of no treatment advantage.The most expensive these days are INVISALIGN.

Metal Braces INR 18,000 – INR 35,000
Ceramic Braces INR 30,000 – INR 55,000
Lingual / Incognito Braces INR 72,000 – INR 190,000
Invisalign INR 60,000 onwards