Prosthodontics – The Art and Science of Designing Smiles

The ADA defines it as “ the dental specialty pertaining to the diagnosis, treatment planning, rehabilitation and maintenance of oral function, comfort, appearance and health of patients with clinical conditions associated with missing or deficient teeth or oral and maxillofacial tissues using biocompatible substitutes”.

As a rapidly expanding science and art, prosthodontics serves to bring back the smiles and functional efficiency of teeth, and is still evolving.

As a mark of honour to all the industrious prosthodontists of the world, January 22nd is celebrated as “Prosthodontists’ Day” every year across the world.

Pierre Fauchard, an 18th century French surgeon has been considered the “Father of Prosthodontics” for his pioneering work.

There are four branches in Prosthodontics.

Fixed Prosthodontics

Removable Prosthodontics

Implant Prosthodontics

Implant Prosthodontics is the most advanced technology in dentistry and is serving millions of patients with edentulousness, and this is the best form of treatment for missing teeth, much better than the conventional removable and fixed partial dentures.  There has been extensive research in this field and implants and crowns can be placed in just two working days,  provided conditions are favorable. The latest TTPHIL technique involves no bleeding, no sinus lifts, no grafting, and a very fast healing time. This is indeed a boon to those waiting to have lengthy painful procedures. Even cardiac patients, diabetics, and other medical conditions found implants to be as successful as 98%.

Gone are the days when conventional implant placement was done and patients had to wait for even an year for teeth. It’s speed, accuracy and digitalization now. Techniques such as digital impressions, stereolithographic models and prints, surgical guides for precision placement of implants, complete modernization of laboratories with international standards help prosthodontists and implantologists to deliver implants in just 2 working days! However, certain limiting factors like infections, bone density might delay the permanent crowns a little, but the screw-retained two-piece systems are being considered the best in Implantology.

Maxillofacial prosthodontics

Maxillofacial prosthodontics involves the replacement of anatomical structures of the face like eyes, ears nose etc.

Implant and maxillofacial Prosthodontics is a superspecialization in dentistry that can be performed only by a skilled, trained, experienced prosthodontist.

This article is dedicated to all prosthodontists and implantologists, working relentlessly to bring smiles to edentulous patients!

Why choose a Prosthodontist?

If you need artificial teeth, choose a prosthodontist because of their advanced education and training, efficiency,  and expertise with advanced technology. Prosthodontists are extensively trained in state of the art techniques and procedures for treating complex DENTAL conditions and restoring optimum function and aesthetics.

For centuries, there has been substantial research for selecting the ideal restorative material for missing teeth,  and ivory was one of them.

DR Rafiuddin Ahmed is considered the Father of Indian dentistry.

From the simplest of tools to the latest digital technology,  prosthodontics traveled ages in history to become one of the most important and respected specialties in dentistry.

Treatments include

  1. Crown
  2. Centric relation
  3. Bridge
  4. Veneers
  5. Surgery (preprosthetic)
  6. Complete and partial removable dentures
  7. Inlays and onlays
  8. Maxillofacial prosthetics
  9. Implants
  10. Full mouth rehabilitation
  11. Most recently, lumineers, emax crowns etc

This article is supposed to bring to light how prosthodontics improved over the decades and how patients are getting more and more conscious of their DENTAL health and most importantly we need to address the issues according to the problem, further necessitating the services of prosthodontists in rehabilitating the oral health.

Prosthodontists and implantologists from a very important team in considering treatments for edentulousness, or protecting root canal treated teeth, or treating conditions affecting bite and also help us in rehabilitating missing facial structures.

We always need to remember that when we need to “replace”, it’s always the prosthodontists and implantologists who we need to approach, though there are nine specialties and not all SPECIALISTS are well equipped with prosthetics and implants.

Tooth Abscess – Can be Life Threatening If Neglected

tooth abscess treatment
Did you know that the oral health effects the health of your whole body? The same bacteria that infect the mouth can travel into your blood system. The spread of this infection into the rest of the body has been directly linked to heart attack, stroke, diabetes and numerous other serious conditions.

What is a Tooth Abscess?

A tooth abscess is a pocket of pus that’s caused by a bacterial infection. The abscess can occur in different regions of the tooth for different reasons.

A periapical abscess occurs at the tip of the root, whereas a periodontal abscess occurs in the gums at the side of a tooth root. A periapical dental abscess usually occurs as a result of an untreated dental cavity, an injury or prior dental work.

Symptoms of Dental Abscess

Signs and symptoms of a tooth abscess include:

  • Severe, persistent, throbbing toothache that can radiate to the jawbone, neck or ear
  • Sensitivity to hot and cold temperatures
  • Sensitivity to the pressure of chewing or biting
  • Fever
  • Swelling in your face or cheek
  • Tender, swollen lymph nodes under your jaw or in your neck
  • Sudden rush of foul-smelling and foul-tasting, salty fluid in your mouth and pain relief, if the abscess ruptures
  • Difficulty breathing or swallowing

When to see a doctor

See your dentist promptly if you have any signs or symptoms of a tooth abscess.

If you have a fever and swelling in your face and you can’t reach your dentist, go to an emergency room. Also, go to the emergency room if you have trouble breathing or swallowing. These symptoms may indicate that the infection has spread deeper into your jaw and surrounding tissue or even to other areas of your body.

Causes of Tooth Abscess

A periapical tooth abscess occurs when bacteria invade the dental pulp — the innermost part of the tooth that contains blood vessels, nerves and connective tissue.

Bacteria enter through either a dental cavity or a chip or crack in the tooth and spread all the way down to the root. The bacterial infection can cause swelling and inflammation at the tip of the root.

Risk Factors Involving Dental Abscess

These factors may increase your risk of a tooth abscess:

Poor dental hygiene: Not taking proper care of your teeth and gums — such as not brushing your teeth twice a day and not flossing — can increase your risk of tooth decay, gum disease, tooth abscess, and other dental and mouth complications.
A diet high in sugar: Frequently eating and drinking foods rich in sugar, such as sweets and sodas, can contribute to dental cavities and turn into a tooth abscess.
Dry mouth: Having a dry mouth can increase your risk of tooth decay. Dry mouth is often due to the side effect of certain medications or ageing issues.

Treatment of Tooth Abscess

Dentists will treat a tooth abscess by

  • draining it and getting rid of the infection.
  • root canal treatment,
  • If it’s not restorable, the tooth may need to be pulled.

Antibiotics: If the infection is limited to the abscessed area, you may not need antibiotics. But if the infection has spread to nearby teeth, your jaw or other areas, your dentist will likely prescribe antibiotics to stop it from spreading further. He or she may also recommend antibiotics if you have a weakened immune system.

Leaving a tooth abscess untreated can lead to serious, even life-threatening, complications.

Complications from Tooth Abscess

A tooth abscess won’t go away without treatment. If the abscess ruptures, the pain may decrease significantly — but you still need dental treatment. If the abscess doesn’t drain, the infection may spread to your jaw and to other areas of your head and neck. You might even develop sepsis — a life-threatening infection that spreads throughout your body.

If you have a weakened immune system and you leave a dental abscess untreated, your risk of a spreading infection increases even more.

Do’s and Don’ts at Home

If you have to wait before your dentist sees you, these home remedies can give you some relief from your pain. But remember, these remedies are not a replacement for your treatment with the dentist.

    • Warm saltwater mouth rinse thrice a day can ease your pain and swelling.
    • Clove oil. The active ingredient in clove oil, eugenol, has helpful anaesthetic and antibacterial properties. Applying a small amount of a clove essential oil to the site of a dental abscess inside your mouth (not over your cheeks or outside your lips)can temporarily numb the area, easing your pain.
    • Do not apply any balms like Zandu balm, Moov or Volini spray over your face or cheeks on the abscess area as you may get severe and rapid swelling.

Prevention of Tooth Abscess

Avoiding tooth decay is essential to preventing a tooth abscess. Take good care of your teeth to avoid tooth decay:

      • Use fluoridated drinking water.
      • Brush your teeth at least twice a day with a fluoride toothpaste.
      • Use dental floss or an interdental cleaner to clean between your teeth on a daily basis.
      • Replace your toothbrush every three or four months, or whenever the bristles are frayed.
      • Eat healthy food, limiting sugary items and between-meal snacks.
      • Visit your dentist for regular checkups and professional cleanings.
      • Consider using an antiseptic or a fluoride mouth rinse to add an extra layer of protection against tooth decay.

Painless Dental Treatment for Children with Conscious Sedation

Painless dental treatment is a reality today. 

Fear and anxiety towards dentistry is a major barrier to oral health. The pediatric dental wing at The Dental Specialists not only has a children friendly environment but our team of expert pediatric dentists to ensure that the children’s visit to the dentist is comfortable and fun.

In spite of our best efforts, there could be other factors like previous unpleasant dental treatment, fear of unknown environment and people, lack of trust, white coat phobia, needle phobia, even the sounds and noise produced by dental equipment, etc resulting in fear and anxiety in kid during treatment.

For such cases, AAPD (AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY) recognizes nitrous oxide and oxygen inhalation as a safe and effective technique to reduce anxiety, produce analgesia and enhance effective communication between the child and the dentist.

painless dental treatment for children

What is Nitrous Oxide (Laughing Gas)

Nitrous Oxide is a colorless, odorless gas that gives effective analgesic, and stress relieving agent causing euphoria and relaxation. It alters the child’s mood thus making him more receptive to dental treatment.

Is Nitrous Oxide safe?

Yes, it has an excellent safety record. The child remains awake, responsive and breathes well.

The machine that we use to administer the treatment comes with an inbuilt safety system. The delivery system is manufactured with the “oxygen fail-safe” device that stops Nitrogen flow when Oxygen is stopped thus preventing any catastrophe.

How does sedation feel

Nitrous Oxide gas effects may vary from person to person. The child may feel a tingling sensation throughout the body, some kid feels like in dreamy state, their negative feelings, stress and anxiety may disappear and they will be in a complete state of relaxation.

conscious sedation


painless dental treatment for children

Advantages of conscious sedation with Nitrous Oxide

  • Fast acting- rapidly absorbed, allowing rapid onset and recovery that is 2-3 min.
  • It increases pain threshold
  • Depth of nitrous oxide sedation can be adjusted quickly and an optimal level of relaxation can be achieved.
  • Recovery time is pretty short: Nitrous Oxide gets clear from the lungs in a few mins (3-5 mins) completely after Nitrogen is stopped and only Oxygen is flushed. You feel refreshed.
  • It doesn’t affect daily activity.

Who needs conscious sedation for dental treatment

  • Fearful, anxious or frightened child, who refuses to cooperate.
  • Special health care needs children
  • Needle-phobic children
  • Extractions
  • Minor surgeries

Cost of Dental Veneers in India

Did you always want a smile like your most favourite movie star? Well, many of us do and it could very well be possible with a dental veneer. Dental veneers are used for smile makeover and in various other cases to give you the perfect set of teeth. Bothered about the cost of dental veneers? Well, there are a lot of options and the cost of dental veneers in India is comparatively cheaper than most other countries.

In this blog, we have not only covered the cost of Dental veneers in India but also provided every detail on what is dental veneers, the details of the procedure, pros and cons of dental veneers, types of veneers and more. If you are an international patient considering to travel to India for your dental treatment, we have also provided a comparison of cost of dental veneers in India vs. UK, USA, Australia, EU and UAE.

What are Dental Veneers / Laminates

Dental laminates are also known as dental veneers. Laminates/ Veneers are customized, thin artificial nail-like structures designed to bond to the outer surfaces of prepared natural teeth to give a rejuvenating smile.

What are Dental Veeners Made Of

Dental veneers are made of either porcelain or resin material. The porcelain is considered to be the best as it can mimic the exact shining/reflecting properties of natural teeth as well as resist staining. Also, it can mask the underlying tooth color completely. Whereas resin material has the tendency to stain on long term use.

dental veneers

Indications of Dental Veneers

  • Severely discolored teeth
  • Chipped off/ fractured teeth
  • Mal-positioned/crooked teeth
  • Spaces in between teeth
  • Worn out teeth
  • Defective enamel with craters / bulges on teeth
  • Teeth with abnormal shape

Contraindications for Dental Veneers

  • Insufficient teeth structure
  • Excessive spaces in between teeth
  • Severely mal-positioned teeth
  • In patients with habits of night grinding and clenching
  • Teeth with severe gum disease
  • Teeth already having large fillings

Treatment Procedure

Generally, total treatment procedure requires three visits to the dental office.

Veneers for Discolored Teeth
Beautiful Veneers Done @TDS for Discolored Teeth


First Visit to the Dentist’s Office

In the first visit, the dentist will examine your teeth condition and advise you about the required treatment. You should be precise on what type of treatment you wish to go with and what type of result you are expecting? Sometimes the dentist may record your teeth impressions.

Second visit to Dentist’s Office

In the second visit 0.5 -0.7 mm of your teeth enamel will be trimmed off in order to provide room for the future dental veneer/laminate. The dentist will select the appropriate shade for the new dental veneers. Then the impressions will be recorded and the model will be generated. Then the actual veneer will be fabricated in the lab.

preparing for Dental Veneer
Prepare for Dental Veneers

Third Vist to Dentist’s Office – Bonding

In the third visit, the dentist first places the veneer against the teeth surface and examines for the proper fit, shape and shade and do the necessary corrections if any. After finalizing with the proper fit, shade and shape, then the actual process of veneer bonding will be initiated.


Initially, both the teeth surface and the veneer will be dried. Teeth structure will be etched to create roughness on its surface. The cement is placed on the inner surface of the veneer and pressed against the prepared teeth surface. Then a light will be passed to activate the chemical in the cement. Within no time the cement hardens and bonds the veneer to the teeth surface. Then the excess cement will be trimmed off. This completes the procedure of bonding. Then you will be asked to come back for a checkup within a couple of weeks to check for any gum irritation or any discomfort.

Pros and Cons of Dental Veneer


  • Aids to enhance your smile (both healthy and beautiful)
  • Minimal teeth trimming
  • Stain resistant porcelain veneers
  • Gum friendly
  • Quick and simple procedure
  • Strength and durability


  • Not suitable for teeth with poor gum health
  • Not suitable for patients with a habit of night grinding and clenching
  • Irreversible as 0.5-0.8mm of enamel has to be trimmed
  • A tendency to dislodge on biting hard foods

smile design with dental veneer cost
Front Teeth Smile Designing with Dental Veneers Done at TDS

Types of Dental Veneer

Porcelain / All Ceramic Veneers

  • IPS Empress: PRESSABLE CERAMIC. Relatively thicker with high strength. Requires more removal of tooth enamel compared to other types.
  • IPS e. max cad: Made of lithium disilicate. High strength. Requires removal of minimum 0.5mm of tooth enamel.
  • Procera All Ceram Nobel bio care: Contains aluminium oxide. Extremely strong
  • Cerec: this is a unit with digital imaging software along with a milling unit. using this the digital file will be converted into a custom made porcelain veneer. the veneer can be delivered on the same day avoiding multiple visits to a dentist.
  • Zirconia based porcelain: Ultra-thin zirconia veneered to porcelain veneers mainly preferred when there is underlying damage to teeth structure. the opacity of this material hides the underlying defect more when compared to all ceramic; very strong and resistant to fracture, also requires removal of the teeth enamel
  • No prep veneers: Much thinner compared to traditional veneers. made of Cerinate porcelain which is an ultra-strong form of porcelain. Requires minimal 0.2mm of enamel removal or sometimes no removal at all. Reversible but can’t be done on damaged tooth surfaces Example: Lumineers and DURAthin.

Resin Veneers – Composite Resin

Well known as Tooth color filling material used for dental bonding. More economical. More prone to staining. Requires regular replacements and maintenance and is also reversible.

Cost of Dental Veneers in India

Hereby we are providing a table comparing the price of dental veneer in INDIA with other major countries.

Treatment Procedure India (INR) USA (USD) Australia (AUD) Europe (Euro) UK (GBP) UAE (Dirham)
Porcelain Veneer, Per Tooth 8000 – 15000 500 – 1900 1100 – 1500 480 – 600 600 – 1100 1400 – 1700
Cost in USD Equivalent 112 – 210 500 – 1900 759 – 1680 538 – 672 774 – 1419 102 -459
Zirconium Based Porcelain Veneer, per tooth 9000 – 16000 700 – 2000 1300 – 1600 550 – 700 700 – 1200 1500 – 1800
Cost in USD Equivalent 126 – 224 700 – 2000 897 – 1792 616 – 784 903 – 1548 109 – 486
Lumineer per tooth 14000 – 19000 900 – 2500 2500 – 4000 800 – 1200 800 – 1300 2000 – 2500
Cost in USD Equivalent 196 – 266 900 – 2500 1725 – 4480 896 – 1344 1032 – 1677 146 – 675
Composite veneer per tooth 1500 – 2000 250 – 1500 300 – 600 150 – 240 200 – 500 600 – 800
Cost in USD Equivalent $21 – $28 $250 – $1500 $207 – $672 $168 – $269 $258 – $645 $44 – $216

Note: The above-given details in the table represents the ballpark cost of treatment which may vary according to patients teeth condition. Sometimes additional price might be charged as per patients existing teeth condition, temporary teeth fabrication and some radiographs and scans accordingly. The cost of dental veneers shown here is the average indicative cost based on Internet research. The cost shown in USD is based on the conversion rate provided by Google on 14th April 2019.



Smile Designing – Digital Smile Design for Best Results

Smile designing has been gaining increased popularity among the general public today and is no longer restricted to celebrities. As people get more and more self-conscious, they realize the need for a beautiful smile and are increasingly investing in smile correction and smile design. The advent of advanced digital smile designing technologies also make the treatment outcome a lot more predictable and instils confidence in patients considering to undergo smile designing.

The other prohibitive factor was the availability of qualified cosmetic dentists with experience in smile design and the cost, however, smile designing cost in India is very reasonable compared to any other country and there are world class cosmetic dentists available to give you that million dollar smile you have always coveted.

For those of you considering smile designing, we have put together this article to provide all the information you might need to start your journey towards a beautiful smile. We encourage you to read it and if you still have questions, you can always contact us.

What is Smile Designing

Smile designing is a cosmetic treatment that involves artistic, skilful improvement of your natural smile in order to achieve an attractive, healthy and pleasing smile. Smile designing often involves multiple dental procedures. There are also many factors that are to be considered while designing a smile, and particular care should be taken not to damage dental function and at the same time maintain the health of dental tissues. Smile designing is the process to get the perfect smile of your choice with minimal possible limitations.

Smile Design is not just about the Teeth

Smile design is not just about your teeth. Before going in-depth into smile designing, it is necessary to understand that smile designing includes multiple elements including –

  • Face
  • Lips
  • Gums
  • Teeth

Factors to Consider for Smile Designing

Age of the Patient: Special considerations have to be taken into account while designing a smile for the elderly.

  • It is a well-known fact that with increasing age there will be some wear and tear of any organ or tissues. This theory is applicable to the dental tissues also.
  • In old age, there will be noticeable wear in the incisal surfaces i.e. cutting surfaces of upper front teeth, resulting in a decrease in the teeth exposure and at the same time increase in the lower front teeth exposure.
  • If removable dentures are fabricated this feature should be incorporated to simulate natural realistic smile of old age.
  • Of course, this had to be done with prior patient concern as many people now a day’s don’t like to have this feature, though it is naturalistic.

Sex of the Patient: Male and female smiles are distinctly different and this has to be considered while designing a smile.

  • In females, the teeth will be little rounder compared to males which are squarish.
  • Also females display more upper front teeth surfaces i.e. around 3.4mm compared to males which is only 1.9mm.
  • As mentioned earlier, there is no hard and fast rule and smile designs are modified according to patient expectations

Smile Correction for men Smile design for Women

Dental Health: Prior to jumping into the core smile designing process, the dentist will analyze for any missing teeth or mal-aligned teeth and also for health of oral tissues and based on all these advise required procedures to replace the missing teeth and correction of mal-aligned teeth etc. Before starting your smile designing, your dentist will look for any –

  • Deposits on teeth surfaces
  • Mal-aligned teeth
  • Missing teeth
  • Decayed teeth
  • Teeth discoloration
  • Worn out teeth
  • Spaces in between teeth
  • Gummy smile
  • Exposed tooth root surfaces
  • Gum tissue overgrowths
  • Dark gums
  • Flat lips
  • Shorter or longer lips

Digital Smile Design

digital smile designThere have been great technological advances in the field of dentistry and digital smile design is definitely one of the key improvements. The best part of digital smile design is that it makes the whole process is very predictable and takes out any doubts and insecurity. To understand how digital smile design works, consider the following steps –

  • Using your photographs and radiographs the necessary smile corrections will be done on the computer screen (digital smile designing).
  • An output of your newly designed smile can be appreciated prior to undergoing any type of real treatments.
  • The advantage is you can have an opportunity to check and even modify your future smile and decide accordingly.

Who Performs a Smile Design

A smile makeover is going to stay with you for the rest of your life and be an integral part of your personality. Smile designing is a specialised treatment and requires expert hands. As a patient, it is your responsibility to choose the right dentist with deep experience and expertise in cosmetic treatments, specifically in smile design and corrections. Also, understand that smile designing is often not a treatment to be a done by a single dentist, more often than not it involves multiple procedures and it is always better to rely on a TEAM of expert dentists with experience across various dental procedures. At The Dental Specialists, we have a highly experienced team of dentist including cosmetic dentists, orthodontics, endodontists, periodontists and others who work collaboratively to design the perfect smile for our patients.

Smile Designing – A Collaborative Approach

Smile designing isn’t a single procedure, it involves multiple corrections which includes teeth, gums, lips etc. Initially, the dentist would analyze your existing smile and discuss with you on your expectations regarding future smile. Later the necessary corrections will be advised accordingly. Some of the common processes often involved includes –

  • Tooth color fillings for spaced dentition or minor tooth decay
  • Root canal treatment in case of severe tooth decay and severely worn out teeth
  • Crowns and bridges in case of missing teeth and also for root canal treated teeth
  • Teeth whitening for discolored teeth
  • Dental implants in case of  missing teeth
  • Teeth straightening for mal-aligned teeth
  • Laser gum de-pigmentation for dark gums
  • Gum surgeries for triangular spaces in between teeth
  • Gum grafts for tooth root exposed surfaces
  • Gum reshaping for bulbous swollen gums
  • Artificial fillers for lip shaping
  • Lip Surgeries for shorter or longer lips

Sometimes the dentist will show you a wax mock-up and trial on your plaster teeth models, prior to performing any treatment procedures. This allows you to preview the final expected outcome and decide accordingly on your comfort zone. Once finalized, the dentist will initiate the actual process of smile designing.

How Much Time is Required for Smile Designing

  • The time taken for the entire process will vary between one to three weeks depending on the severity of the correction.
  • If any teeth straightening procedures are involved it takes around 12 to 16 months to appreciate the final outcome.

Key Success Factors in Smile Design

  • Clear picture of Patient expectations
  • Doctor expertise
  • Lab technician support
  • Quality of materials chosen
  • Postoperative care
  • Follow up and review in every six months

How to Maintain Smile Design – Post Treatment Care

  • Requires regular brushing, flossing and rinsing.
  • Avoid more abrasive toothpaste and brushing habits thereby avoiding scratches on newly restored surfaces in order to protect their polish and lustre.
  • Use alcohol-free mouthwashes as alcohol interferes with the bond between new restoration and your original teeth.
  • Try to avoid food with high sugar content.
  • Limit consumption of coffee, tea, soda to prevent staining.
  • Biting or chewing on hard objects like pens, pencils and bottle caps should be avoided.
  • Follow the dentist’s instructions and regular follow up visits will give long term results.

Smile Designing Cost in India

Smile designing is a highly expensive treatment in the US, UK or other western countries. While it is not cheap, comparative smile designing cost in India is much less. The cost of smile designing procedure will vary around INR 50,000 to INR 1,20,000, depending on the severity of the condition and the number of treatment procedures required for the total correction.

Smile Design at The Dental Specialists

  • We @ TDS are having an in-house team for smile designing comprising of highly experienced dentists across various branches of dentistry.
  • We are equipped with the latest technology and advanced equipment including lasers, digital x rays, orthopantamography OPG, Dental implants, Rotary root canal dentistry, Digital smile designing, Nitrous oxide sedation, advanced CAD CAM technology etc at par with the best clinics globally.
  • We follow international standards when it comes to sterilization and disinfection and use sterilizing through fumigation.

If you are considering smile design or smile correction, we will be happy to answer your questions. Contact us and take the first step towards a perfect smile.

Gum Reshaping for Smile Makeover

Gum Reshaping and Contouring
A Smile makeover cannot be justified only by correcting mal-positioned teeth. What if uneven gums are seen over perfectly aligned teeth? So here we emphasize that, along with properly aligned teeth, the balanced even look of gums is also essential for the truly beautiful smile.

Gum Contouring / Gum Reshaping

The actual gum line should not be too high or too low on the teeth surface. Gums should be at an optimal level to achieve a good healthy smile. The process of reshaping / sculpting the gums to the desired level is known as gum contouring / reshaping. This is done either by adding new gum tissue or by removing excessive gum tissue. This extra gum tissue which is added to the defective area is known as “Gum Graft.”

Is gum contouring required only to improve the smile?

No, it’s not only performed for improving a smile. This is also done as a part of periodontal (severe gum infections) treatment.

  • For example in the elimination of pocket(the space between the teeth and gum), gum contouring is done. By doing so the bacterial home i.e. the pocket is removed.
  • Also it is done as a part of treatment in gum recession. Gum recession is a condition where the gum retards downwards resulting in more tooth root exposure. Due to recession further tooth decay and sensitivity problem arise. Gum recession is treated by using Gum Grafts.
  • By using some drugs and excessive brushing, the gums tend to swell and grow onto the teeth surfaces decreasing the visibility of the teeth. Here gum contouring is done by removing the excessive gum tissue which is technically known as Gingivectomy.

Note: Apart from the above reasons, this procedure is done if the person is not satisfied with the appearance of the gums during his/her smile.

How the process of gum contouring / Reshaping is done?

Initially, you should clearly discuss and explain the dentist about what you are expecting finally. Accordingly, the dentist will numb your tissues where the procedure has to be performed. Then with the help of scalpels, laser or radio-surgery the gums are reshaped to the desired level. Scalpel method is the traditional method which induces more bleeding and more irritation. Also, the time required for the treatment procedure will be more. In this advanced era, laser therapy had revolutionalised each and every field. With the aid of laser light, the gum contouring is done with minimal pain, bleeding and postoperative discomfort. The healing of tissues will also be faster as there is less irritation to the tissues. The laser light seals the gum further preventing bacterial entrapment and therefore infections.

Gum Grafts

A simple and quick surgical procedure in which healthy gum tissue is harvested from other sites of the oral cavity and is stitched back to the area where the gum is deficient. Most commonly from the roof of the oral cavity, the healthy gum tissue is retrieved. Generally done in cases of gum recession. There are many types of grafts which include connective tissue grafts, free gingival grafts and lateral grafts. The type of grafting procedure will be decided by the dentist after analyzing the existing gum condition. Here the process of removing healthy gum tissue from another site can be done using scalpel or laser. After finishing the grafting procedure, a dressing will be placed over to protect the graft from external stimuli for a week or so.

Post Procedural Care for Gum Contouring – at Home

The postoperative pain and discomfort will be minimal with laser therapy. The general care includes gentle manipulation of gums, restricting to soft and cold foods thereby avoiding hard, hot and sticky foods as the gum tissues are fragile for a period of time. In the follow-up visit, the dentist will examine for the healing and let you know when to start a normal diet. Anyways regular brushing, flossing and rinsing are mandatory.

Who will perform a Gum reshaping procedure

Any experienced Periodontist i.e. gum specialist will perform with ease and perfection. If you need a consultation, pick your phone and schedule an appointment @ TDS for your smile makeover.

You can read more about our smile design and smile correction here.

How to Get Rid of Dark Gums?

A hundred per cent beautiful perfect smile is appreciated only when there is a good set of properly aligned teeth associated with even, pinkish gum line showcasing them. We often see people around us feeling embarrassed to smile wholeheartedly in the public gatherings. There may be many reasons for that which might include mal-positioned teeth, uneven gum line, discoloured teeth etc. Also, some people feel inconvenient in showing off their dark gums. YES!! dark gums and its solution is the topic for today’s discussion.

What are dark gums?

Gum is the tissue covering the necks of teeth and bone in which teeth are fixed. The color of healthy gums in India is pale red to pink. Of course, this color will be darker in dark-skinned individuals especially in African countries. Imagine dark gums in a white skinned or fair skinned individual. This will be really embarrassing for an individual to smile. Here at The Dental Specialists we provide a wide range of gum treatments options for dark gums and similar problems with the latest and advanced technology like lasers, helping you achieve your “Dream Smile”.

getting rid of black gums

Where does this darkness come from?

Dark or black complexion will be caused by melanocytes. Melanocytes are a type of cells which produce melanin pigment which is usually brownish black in color. If the number of melanocytes increases more than the normal limits, the complexion changes to black.

Why do gums become dark?

There are many reasons for dark gums which include-

  • Genetic background
  • Smokers: As nicotine triggers melanocyte to produce more melanin pigment
  • Side effects of certain drugs ex; TCA anti-depressants
  • From old amalgam fillings, metal/ metal-ceramic crowns and bridges

Is it harmful to have a dark gum?

If the complexion of gum is always been dark then it is of no harm, but if any patches tend to develop overtime then we need to consider that there is something wrong.

How to get rid of dark gums?

Yes. There is reliable treatment for dark gums. This process of removal of melanin pigments from gum tissue is known as gum de-pigmentation or gum bleaching. This includes scraping away of the pigmented area from the superficial layers of gum tissue which can be done through many methods. Some of them include:

  • Using scalpels – the outer surface will be scrapped. With scalpels, the bleeding and trauma will be more as well as healing will also be prolonged.
  • Abrading the outer surface of gum using burs rotating in a high-speed motor
  • Laser- ablation of superficial layers of gum using laser light
  • Using gum grafts
  • With use of certain chemicals like phenols

Note: In the case of smokers, by quitting smoking the gum color can be regained. It is reversible. In the case of old silver fillings and metal crowns, if we replace them the original color can be retrieved.

Postoperative Care for dark gums treatment

If the procedure is done with scalpels more healing time required. If done with advanced laser therapy the bleeding, time taken for the procedure and the postoperative care will also be minimal. The postoperative care includes being gentle on gum, regular brushing, flossing and rinsing. Avoid eating hot and hard foods for a while.

How much time is required for the total procedure?

The time taken would be around 30-45 minutes for each sitting. If the pigments remnants/spots are seen in review check-up, another sitting will be advised.

Who are the candidates for gum de-pigmentation procedure?

Individuals healthy gums with sufficient thickness are ideal candidates for gum de-pigmentation.

All You Need to Know About Teeth Whitening / Dental Bleaching

Now a days, people are approaching dentists with a shady smile in hope to get a brighter one by undergoing a teeth whitening procedure. Many factors like tea, coffee, red wine, smoking and the natural aging of teeth contribute to teeth discoloration. With age, the thickness of natural enamel decreases and more dentin color shows off giving a yellowish hue to the teeth.

What teeth whitening really is

Teeth whitening is a process to whiten/brighten your own natural teeth without any complications like removing, cutting or edging of the teeth. Through this,we can get 3 to 6 shades brighter teeth compared to your natural ones. The process of teeth whitening performed by applying some chemicals to the teeth surfaces is named as Bleaching.

teeth whitening

Bleaching / teeth whitening methods

  • Bleaching
    • Vital teeth bleaching
      • In-office bleaching
      • In-home bleaching
    • Non-Vital teeth bleaching
      • In-office bleaching

Indications – when do you need teeth whitening

  • Tea, coffee and also tobacco stains
  • Natural ageing of tooth
  • White spots on the tooth surfaces
  • Fluoride stains
  • Tetracycline stains


  • In case of cervical abrasions
  • Pregnancy and in children
  • Gum recession where root surface is exposed
  • Exposed dentinal surfaces due to cracks or worn away
  • Existing crowns and veneers
  • Existing gum diseases

Vital Teeth Bleaching

Tooth is considered to be vital when the nerve in it is live without any damage. This process can be done in dental office by the trained dentists or at home by the individual itself.

In-office Vital Teeth Bleaching

First, dentist will examine for the stains or any discolorations on your tooth surfaces and will advise the required procedure. Later a routine dental cleaning will be done to remove any soft debris (pellicle) or hard deposits on the teeth surfaces and also do the necessary teeth fillings. Once the clean healthy tooth surface is attained, actual process of bleaching will be initiated. Photographs of your teeth are taken prior for further monitoring. Next a gel is applied onto the adjacent gum margins to act as a protective barrier from the whitening agent which we are using for the later process. Next the whitening agent which contains Hydrogen Peroxide will be applied to the tooth surfaces in order to bleach away any hard stains repeatedly until the desired shade is attained. Each sitting will take 60 to 90 minutes and the number of sittings may vary from 1-3 depending upon the severity of stain and the desirable shade. Also laser light can be used to activate the gel and render a faster action which is also known as power bleaching/teeth whitening.

Non-Vital Teeth Bleaching

The previously Root canal treated tooth, which had got an severe discoloration cannot be treated simply by using whitening agent on its surface. The dentist makes a hole into the teeth and place the whitening agent and fills it back with temporary filling and leave it for several days. If the desired shade is not attained then the same process will be repeated again.

In Home Teeth Whitening Methods

  • In home bleaching
  • Whitening strips
  • Whitening tooth pastes

In Home Teeth Bleaching

Here with the help of special customized mouth trays whitening agent is applied to all the teeth surfaces. The mouth trays are customized to give a close fit to the teeth and hold the agent longtime in contact to the teeth surfaces. The duration of application varies from 4 to 6 weeks daily for some prescribed hours. But one should cautiously apply without hurting the gum margins.

When is Home Teeth Bleaching Recommended

This is sometimes opted for the personal convenience sake by some patients. Also sometimes dentist adviseit ,in addition to in office bleaching when the severity of stain is very bad. the concentration of whitening agent will be less compared to in office bleaching

Advantages of Bleaching / Teeth Whitening

  • Teeth whitening achieved without any cutting or trimming of teeth enamel.
  • Brighter smile with lots of confidence can be achieved.

Disadvantages of Bleaching / Teeth Whitening

  • Gums gets burnt and temporarily bleached by ill fitting trays at home
  • Teeth Sensitivity if applied more than prescribed
  • Not permanent result
  • Diet restrictions

Post Treatment Care for Teeth Whitening

Certain foods are to be avoided in order to preserve the desired shade which includes

  • Carbonated drinks
  • Black tea and coffee
  • Soya sauce
  • Red wine
  • Strongly colored foods

Along with this regular brushing, flossing and mouth rinsing are mandatory.

Is teeth whitening permanent?

Any dentist won’t give any guarantee on the result achieved through bleaching. Certain food restrictions have to be followed. Usually the original natural shades comes back within 6-12 months. Of course there are some results that have retained for longtime even.

In Home Whitening Strips

Whitening strips are thin flexible strips with whitening gel onto its surface. These are designed according to the tooth contour and shape and are directly applied to the teeth surfaces. The basic problem here is the person who is applying doesn’t know where it is getting sticked onto. More number of applications may also lead to teeth sensitivity. The dentist consultation is a must before one chooses to opt this procedure.

Whitening Tooth Pastes

Whitening tooth pastes are vividly available in the market now a days. These contain some abrasives which removes some external stains on teeth. Of course dentist advise is a must to initiate any of the above teeth whitening methods.

Bleeding Gums – A Warning Sign

Bleeding gums are a common problem but it is also a warning sign that should be immediately attended. In this blog, we will look at the actual causes of bleeding gums and the associated ill effects. Let’s try to understand the importance of gums and their health.


gum bleedingGum is the soft skin that surrounds the neck of the tooth and covers the bones into which the teeth are fixed. These gums form a tight seal and act as a barrier for the entry of bacteria.

How do you know the gums are healthy?

Pink is healthy and red is not. This is one thing that you should always have in mind when you check your gums.

inflamed gums

How to maintain healthy gums?

  • Teeth should be cleaned and flossed regularly in order to remove the food deposits from the surfaces of the tooth and thereby preventing plaque formation.
  • Otherwise, the plaque deposited will continue to irritate the gums and in turn they become red, inflamed and start to bleed with the slightest touch (In dental terms known as GINGIVITIS).

healthy gums

Ill Effects of Bleeding Gums

If not treated, gingivitis can progress into a low-grade gum infection which slowly and painlessly will destroy the gums and bone around the teeth.

Due to the loss of bone, there will be a loosening of the teeth (in dental terms – PERIODONTITIS)

At what age gums are affected?

Gum bleeding can occur at any age but is more prevalent in females compared to males.

What are the other risk factors associated with gum disease?

According to recent research, gum diseases are associated with cardiac and respiratory disorders. The picture below will help you understand how bacteria travel from gums to heart vessels and further cause blockage.

There is also a positive co-relation of gum disease with various adverse effects during pregnancy such as low birth weight, pre-term delivery etc.

When do I get my teeth checked or how frequently

  • Generally, it is advised to get your teeth checked once in every 6 months.
  • In case you notice any redness of gums or deposits on the surface of your teeth, it is advised that you visit the dentist immediately.

    gum bleeding effects

  • If you are pregnant or planning to, it is advised that you visit the dentist for a general check-up.

If you are experiencing gum bleeding, do not wait, speak to a dentist, preferably a specialist periodontist today. Healthy gums, healthy teeth.

Comparing Tooth Replacement Options, Cost, Advantages and Disadvantages

Having a missing tooth could mean a lot of problems, from something as simple as unable to chew your food properly to feeling embarrassed and low on self-confidence in social situations among others. However, tooth replacement is a viable process that could resolve your misery and today, modern dental science has a lot of tooth replacement options – of course, each one has their advantages and disadvantages. In this blog, we are going to look at a detailed comparison of the different tooth replacement options, cost, advantages, disadvantages and more.

Tooth Replacement Options and Methods

The tooth replacement methods can be broadly classified into the following – 

tooth replacement options

Removable Dentures

removable dentures for tooth replacementThis is an age-old technique of dentistry where missing teeth are replaced by adhering artificial teeth to a gum-colored plastic base/plate. If total set of teeth are replaced using removable denture then we call it as a complete denture. If only some teeth are replaced by this method we name it as a removable partial denture. The actual procedure for fabrication of complete denture includes multiple visits approximately 5-6 visits. This is not that easy for a person to get used to these dentures. Initially, he will face a lot of discomforts to speak and chew food. Later within some weeks, as he gets accustomed to those dentures he can eat and speak better. These dentures require more post procedural maintenance. You need to remove and store them in water daily night before going to bed and clean them in the morning before wearing again. If you drop them by mistake there is every chance of denture breakage and you will need to make new denture again. Over time the bone which is supporting the gum colored base plate starts melting due to the grinding forces that are transferred from the base plate to the underlying bone leading to poorly fitting dentures.

Advantages of Removable Dentures

  • Easy and simple to fabricate
  • Less invasive
  • Economical
  • Can restore your smile
  • Aids in grinding food


Disadvantages of Removable Dentures

  • More postoperative care needed
  • Need to change the denture frequently due to underlying bone-melting, which results in improper denture fitting
  • Sticky and hard food is restricted
  • Denture breakage if it drops down
  • Use of adhesives for additional grip
  • Speech and grinding ability will be affected but after some weeks it will be improved

Tooth Supported Partial Dentures / Dental Bridges

Tooth supported partial dentures are also known as Dental Bridges. This is one of the fixed teeth replacement methods which dentists have been using from some decades. In this technique, we replace the missing tooth/teeth by taking support from adjacent teeth. We intentionally trim 1.5-2mm of supporting teeth structure all around in order to provide room for future dental crowns. Later an impression will be recorded and teeth models are generated. Now in the dental lab, the actual missing teeth will be fabricated and are secured to the adjacent teeth dental crowns. For example, if we discuss in a single tooth missing condition, we will have three newly fabricated teeth, centre one will be missing teeth and the adjacent two supporting teeth dental crowns, altogether a THREE UNIT DENTAL BRIDGE. The number of units in the bridge may vary depending on many factors which will be decided by your dentist. In the next visit, the dental bridge will be fixed with a provisional cement for a couple of weeks to check for any disturbances and discomfort. Later it will be fixed with permanent cement.

tooth bridge used for tooth replacement

Advantages of Dental Bridges

  • Fixed need not remove and clean daily
  • Provide highly natural looking result
  • Post procedural maintenance will be minimal compared to removable dentures.
  • Prevents tipping of adjacent teeth into missing teeth space
  • Time taken for total treatment is very less
  • Grinding forces are distributed to the adjacent teeth
  • Speech and chewing ability are not affected
  • Less invasive
  • Less expensive compared to dental implants


Disadvantages of Dental Bridges

  • Adjacent healthy teeth are trimmed in order to replace a missing t00th
  • Not possible to fabricate a bridge if supporting teeth are absent
  • Chance of supporting teeth to get decayed in future.
  • Bone preservation is not done due to lack of grinding forces to the underlying bone.
  • If any problem arises with the supporting teeth in the later stages, we need to remove the entire bridge and fabricate a new bridge
  • If adjacent teeth are having poor gum health we cannot take them as supporting teeth
  • The number of supporting teeth will increase if the number of missing teeth increases

Implant Supported Fixed Dentures

dental implant for tooth replacementIn order to overcome all the drawbacks of dental bridges, we are now equipped with the latest technologies of tooth replacement methods by using Dental Implants. A dental implant is actually a screw which is placed into the jaw bone where the tooth is missing. This is made of titanium metal which is human body friendly with no foreign body reactions(infections). After the implant placement is done, we then place a dental crown on the dental implant that merges into missing space perfectly. Within two to three months, the jaw bone starts growing onto the implant screw threads which is known as osseointegration. After osseointegration is successful, the implant becomes strong and stable into the jaw bone. So when grinding forces are applied, they are transferred from the implant to the adjacent bone and the function of bone is retained. So the process of bone-melting doesn’t occur. The entire process of implant placement is done under local anaesthesia which is totally painless. Implant actually functions as a tooth root system and considered as next best to original tooth. So friends when you are planning for dental implants, do remember one thing, “CHOOSE THE RIGHT DOCTOR FOR THE RIGHT PROCEDURE”. A well-experienced implantologist who is handy with all implant systems can help you with a lifetime solution for your missing teeth.

Advantages of Implant-Supported Fixed Dentures


At The Dental Specialists, we specialize in dental implants and we offer a life-time warranty for all implant supported fixed dentures for tooth replacements.

  • Not trimming adjacent healthy teeth
  • Bone preservation
  • Prevents adjacent teeth movement into missing teeth space
  • Biocompatible i.e., it will not be rejected by the human body
  • Minimally invasive procedure. The procedure will be done under minimal local anaesthesia with no need of any cut through the soft tissues i.e., pinhole surgery with no bleeding, pain and stitches.
  • Can place implants in the same appointment of tooth removal under same local anaesthesia in cases where the tooth is decayed/broken more than 80% and cannot be saved or with poor gum health i.e, loose tooth.
  • Permanent teeth fixation can be done within 2 TO 3 days (in case of single tooth replacement), 2 to 9 days (in case of full mouth missing teeth replacement) after implant placement, with the aid of CAD CAM technology 
  • Can enjoy the food of your choice with minimal restrictions
  • No sensitivity to cold and hot foods
  • Post-procedural maintenance is minimal which includes regular brushing and flossing
  • Very strong and stable
  • Longer durability
  • Gives you a rejuvenating youthful smile along with improved psychological confidence
  • High success rate
  • One time solution for missing teeth with lifetime warranty @ THE DENTAL SPECIALISTS


Drawbacks of implant supported tooth replacement

  • More expensive compared to removable dentures and dental bridges

Have a quick look at the table given below. Here we are comparing all the possible replacement methods in a more simplified way.

The table below provides a more simplified comparison of tooth replacement options –

Comparative Factors Removable Dentures Tooth Supported Implant Supported
Durability Minimal Acceptable Excellenct
Stability Less Stable Stable Stable
Longevity 2-3 years 8-10 years Lifetime warranty @ The Dental Specialists
Flossing Not Possible Not Possible Possible
Surgical Procedure Not Required Not Required Required but minimal invasive @The Dental Specialists
Diet No Sticky & Hard Foods Regular Regular
Supporting Tooth Cutting Not Required Required Not Required
Time Taken 2-3 weeks that includes 5-6 visits/td> Within a week, includes 3 visits Witin 2-3 days (single missing tooth), 2-9 days (full mouth missing teeth) @The Dental Specialists

Tooth Replacement Options Cost

While generally, the cost of tooth replacement is much cheaper in India compared to that of US, UK or even the Middle East, the quality of treatment remains at par, if not better. To give you a better idea of the tooth replacement options cost in the different countries, we have put together the below table with an indicative cost of various tooth replacement options across countries.

Treatment Procedure India (INR) USA (USD) Australia (AUD) Europe (EURO) UK (GBP) UAE (Dirham)
Removable Complete Denture 40000 – 60000
(USD 550 -850)
4000 – 6000 2500 – 4000 1000 – 1500 1500 – 2000 4000 – 5000
Implant Supported Hybrid Removable Denture 60000 – 80000
(USD 850 -1100)
9000 – 12000 10000 – 14000 7500 – 9000 4000 – 8000 8000 – 12000
Porcelain fused to metal crown 5000 – 7000
(USD 70 -100)
800 – 1300 1000 – 1200 500 – 600 450 -700 2000 – 3000
All Porcelain Crown 7000 – 10000
(USD 100 -150)
900 – 1600 1200 – 1400 600 – 800 750 – 900 2500 – 3500
Zirconium Metal Free Crown 8000 – 12000
(USD 125 -180)
1200 – 1700 1600 – 1900 900 – 1100 800 – 1000 3500 -4500
Single Implant + Crown 30000 – 55000
(USD 400-750)
3500 – 5000 4000 – 6000 2000 – 2500   4000 – 7000
Full mouth rehabilitation per arch(malo bridge with titanium frame with 4-6 implants and 12-16 crowns) 350000 – 550000
(USD 4800-7500)
50000 – 70000 60000 – 80000 30000 – 45000 25000 – 30000 70000 – 90000
Immediate loading full mouth rehabilitation per arch(4 to 6 implants and 12-16 crowns) 250000 – 400000
(USD 3400-5500)