What Are Zygomatic Implants
Zygomatic implants is an advanced dental implant technique. As the name suggests these implants are fixed to the zygomatic arch. They are used as the alternative to the old conventional technique. Zygomatic implants are used in the upper jaw that is maxilla .
If the bone present is not sufficient enough for an implant placement then zygomatic implants can be placed successfully as these implants are longer than the traditional implants and are anchored into jaw bone which is very close to the dense bone Zygoma. Hence these implants act as support to implant bridgework where there has been a substantial amount of bone loss from the upper jaw and traditional implants cannot be used on their own to support a bridge.
Zygomatic implants are also used as the alternative to the dental procedure, which required bone grafts for placements of implants, allowing the procedure to be completed in a single stage. Prior to implant surgery, a CBCT scan are done to assess the amount of available bone and to plan the treatment accordingly.
It is also important to make an anatomical study model of the jaw, which enables the dentists to visualise the precise shape of the jaw and cheekbone, and thus avoiding wide surgical exposure. Typically, two zygomatic implants are used along with other ordinary implants but where the bone availability is even more compromised, four zygomatic implants may be used.
A fixed composite bridge may be given temporarily on the same day of implant placement till the fixation of permanent prosthesis.
How is Zygomatic Implant Different from Regular Dental Implants?
Other conventional implants are anchored to the jaw bones but the zygomatic implants are anchored into dense zygomatic arch giving it strong anchorage.
Other conventional implants are possible only when sufficient amount of bone is available for anchorage whereas the zygomatic implants are longer and have dense anchorage, so can be placed in bone deficient areas.
Hence, it eliminates use of bone grafts thus enabling procedure to be completed in single sitting and faster healing.
Earlier in order to solve the problem of bone deficiency several bone augmentation procedures were developed. The bone was taken from a donor site (for example the hip), transplanted to recipient site and then implants were placed. This procedure has to be done under general anesthesia requiring patients to be hospitalized for two –three days and some degree of morbidity related to the donor site was expected.
However, recently other synthetic bone grafts are used to minimize rate of morbidity. But using bone grafts increases the healing time, sometimes patients might have to wait for more than 1 year before a fixed prosthesis can be delivered .
Further more, using bone grafts increases the total treatment expenditure. Zygomatic implants are generally inserted through the palate to engage the body of zygomatic arch.
When is Zygomatic Implants Required
- The main indication for zygomatic implants is in case of maxillary atrophy. If any individual requires dental implant but the treatment is not feasible due to insufficient bone present then zygomatic implants can easily be placed.
- Strong anchorage required for full mouth implant supported dentures. In that case zygomatic implants can provide good strength as it gets anchored into dense bone.
- Failed conventional implant placement.
- To avoid bone grafting procedures.
- Failed sinus augmentation procedures.
- Resorbed ridge.
Most commonly, the zygomatic implants are combined with two to four anterior maxillary axial implants.
Advantages of Zygomatic Implants
- You get a fixed prosthesis which satisfies both functional and aesthetical requirement within 24 hours or two to three days as compared to the conventional implant techniques that takes up to 6 months.
- Zygomatic dental implant enables a graft-less treatment options.
- Early and easy healing .
- Reduces the rate days in hospital and morbidity rate by avoiding grafts and thus total expenditure also decreases.
- They are longer than other dental implants.
- Its length and anchorage provides better strength.
- Zygoma implants are placed in single surgical procedure under general anesthesia, giving patients a less painful and comfortable experience.
- Only a day after the surgery, the patient will be able to bite and chew their normal food and continue his /her normal activities.
- The new artificial set of fixed permanent teeth gives you a confident smile .
What are the contraindication and complexities involved in zygomatic implants?
Contraindications for the Zygomatic implants include:
- Acute sinus infection
- Any pathology of maxilla or zygoma
- Any underlying uncontrolled or malignant systemic disease.
- The use of bisphosphonates
- Habit of smoking.
Sometimes some complexities like prolonged bleeding, swelling , pain or slight discomfort could be there which can be treated and controlled efficiently.
Other complications like haematoma or any other post-operative numbness could be felt which is also controllable.
So to avoid any such complexities proper history of the case should be done and all the investigations including radiographs, CBCT scan and diagnostic models should be done properly.
Zygomatic Implants – Only a Specialists Job
Zygomatic implants are a highly specialized treatment and is done under general anaesthesia, nowadays done under concious sedation and Local anesthesia also under specialist supervision. This treatments are done only by dental implant specialists or by oral and maxillofacial surgeons.
The below powerpoint is to explain the procedure and a case study of a patient who came to India from France to get the Zygomatic implants. We did this procedure at The Dental Specialists under local anesthesia. It is a complete graftless solution and did the implants in and loaded it in just 7 days. She went back to her home town in just 7 days.